Testing and Reliability
Modifying Without a Trace: General Audit Guidelines are Inadequate for Electronic Health Record Audit Mechanisms
J. King, B. Smith, L. Williams, “Modifying Without a Trace: General Audit Guidelines are Inadequate for Electronic Health Record Audit Mechanisms”, Proceedings of the International Health Informatics Symposium (IHI 2012), to appear, 2012.
Without adequate audit mechanisms, electronic health record (EHR) systems remain vulnerable to undetected misuse. Users could modify or delete protected health information without these actions being traceable. The objective of this paper is to assess electronic health record audit mechanisms to determine the current degree of auditing for non-repudiation and to assess whether general audit guidelines adequately address non-repudiation. We derived 16 general auditable event types that affect non-repudiation based upon four publications. We qualitatively assess three open-source EHR systems to determine if the systems log these 16 event types. We find that the systems log an average of 12.5% of these event types. We also generated 58 black-box test cases based on specific auditable events derived from Certification Commission for Health Information Technology criteria. We find that only 4.02% of these tests pass. Additionally, 20% of tests fail in all three EHR systems. As a result, actions including the modification of patient demographics and assignment of user privileges can be executed without a trace of the user performing the action. The ambiguous nature of general auditable events may explain the inadequacy of auditing for non-repudiation. EHR system developers should focus on specific auditable events for managing protected health information instead of general events derived from guidelines.
B. Smith, “Systematizing Security Test Case Planning Using Functional Requirements Phrases“, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Doctoral Symposium (ICSE Doctoral Symposium), Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 1136-1137, 2011.
Security experts use their knowledge to attempt attacks on an application in an exploratory and opportunistic way in a process known as penetration testing. However, building security into a product is the responsibility of the whole team, not just the security experts who are often only involved in the final phases of testing. Through the development of a black box security test plan, software testers who are not necessarily security experts can work proactively with the developers early in the software development lifecycle. The team can then establish how security will be evaluated such that the product can be designed and implemented with security in mind. The goal of this research is to improve the security of applications by introducing a methodology that uses the software system’s requirements specification statements to systematically generate a set of black box security tests. We used our methodology on a public requirements specification to create 137 tests and executed these tests on five electronic health record systems. The tests revealed 253 successful attacks on these five systems, which are used to manage the clinical records for approximately 59 million patients, collectively. If non-expert testers can surface the more common vulnerabilities present in an application, security experts can attempt more devious, novel attacks.
Using SQL Hotspots in a Prioritization Heuristic for Detecting All Types of Web Application Vulnerabilities
B. Smith, L. Williams, “Using SQL Hotspots in a Prioritization Heuristic for Detecting All Types of Web Application Vulnerabilities“, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST 2011), Berlin, Germany, pp. 220-229, 2011.
Challenges for Protecting the Privacy of Health Information: Required Certification Can Leave Common Vulnerabilities Undetected
B. Smith, A. Austin, M. Brown, J. King, J. Lankford, A. Meneely, L. Williams, “Challenges for Protecting the Privacy of Health Information: Required Certification Can Leave Common Vulnerabilities Undetected“, Proceedings of the Security and Privacy in Medical and Home-care Systems (SPIMACS 2010) Workshop, co-located with CCS, Chicago, IL, pp. 1-12, 2010.
R.A. Syed, B. Robinson, L. Williams, “Does Hardware Configuration and Processor Load Impact Software Fault Observability?,” Proceedings of Third International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST 2010), To Appear.
Intermittent failures and nondeterministic behavior complicate and compromise the effectiveness of software testing and debugging. To increase the observability of software faults, we explore the effect hardware configurations and processor load have on intermittent failures and the nondeterministic behavior of software systems. We conducted a case study on Mozilla Firefox with a selected set of reported field failures. We replicated the conditions that caused the reported failures ten times on each of nine hardware configurations by varying processor speed, memory, hard drive capacity, and processor load. Using several observability tools, we found that hardware configurations that had less processor speed and memory observed more failures than others. Our results also show that by manipulating processor load, we can influence the observability of some faults.
Idea: Using System Level Testing for Revealing SQL Injection-Related Error Message Information Leaks
B. Smith, L. Williams, A. Austin, “Idea: Using System Level Testing for Revealing SQL Injection-Related Error Message Information Leaks“, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5965, Engineering Secure Software and Systems (ESSoS 2010), pp. 192-200, 2010.
Completely handling SQL injection consists of two activities: properly protecting the system from malicious input, and preventing any resultant error messages caused by SQL injection from revealing sensitive information. The goal of this research is to assess the relative effectiveness of unit and system level testing of web applications to reveal both error message information leak and SQL injection vulnerabilities. To produce 100% test coverage of 176 SQL statements in four open source web applications, we augmented the original automated unit test cases with our own system level tests that use both normal input and 132 forms of malicious input. Although we discovered no SQL injection vulnerabilities, we exposed 17 error message information leak vulnerabilities associated with SQL statements using system level testing. Our results suggest that security testers who use an iterative, testdriven development process should compose system level rather than unit level tests.
Sherriff, M., Heckman, S., Lake, M., Williams, L., Using Grouping of Static Analysis Alerts to Identify Files Likely to Contain Field Failures, ACM SIGSOFT Foundations of Software Engineering Short Paper, to appear.
BB.H. Smith and L. Williams, Should software testers use mutation analysis to augment a test set? Journal of Systems Software, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1819-1832, 2009.
Mutation testing has historically been used to assess the fault-finding effectiveness of a test suite or other verification technique. Mutation analysis, rather, entails augmenting a test suite to detect all killable mutants. Concerns about the time efficiency of mutation analysis may prohibit its widespread, practical use. The goal of our research is to assess the effectiveness of the mutation analysis process when used by software testers to augment a test suite to obtain higher statement coverage scores. We conducted two empirical studies and have shown that mutation analysis can be used by software testers to effectively produce new test cases and to improve statement coverage scores in a feasible amount of time. Additionally, we find that our user study participants view mutation analysis as an effective but relatively expensive technique for writing new test cases. Finally, we have shown that the choice of mutation tool and operator set can play an important role in determining how efficient mutation analysis is for producing new test cases.
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Yonghee Shin, Robert Bell, Thomas Ostrand, and Elaine Weyuker,
“Does Calling Structure Information Improve the Accuracy of Fault Prediction?“,
The 6th IEEE Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2009), co-located with ICSE 2009, May 16-17, 2009, Vancouver, Canada (To appear)